Factors influencing continuingprofessional developmentA Delphi study among nursing expertsGerard BrekelmansDepartment of Research and Education, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam,The NetherlandsRob F. PoellDepartment of Human Resource Studies, Tilburg University, Tilburg,The Netherlands, andKees van WijkHRM and Healthcare Research Group, Erasmus University, Rotterdam,The NetherlandsAbstractPurpose – The aim of this paper is to present an inventory of expert opinions on the factors thatinfluence the participation of registered nurses in continuing professional development (CPD)activities.Design/methodology/approach – A Delphi study was conducted among 38 Dutch experts(nursing employers, managers, education institutions, and professional associations). Data collectioncomprised three rounds: experts completed two consecutive rounds of questionnaires and participatedin a discussion meeting.Findings – Main influencing factors were: a CPD registration system, the attractiveness of thenursing profession, nurses’ identification with the nursing profession, opportunities for workplacelearning, the line manager as role model, and attractive education programs.Research limitations/implications – Being part of a larger study, for the present paper onlynursing experts were asked their opinion about shaping CPD for nurses. Further research should bringin the views of nurses themselves and investigate how the wider environment influences CPDparticipation.Practical implications – As all stakeholders were found to have their own roles in the CPD process,collaboration among employers, managers, education institutions, and professional associations willbe crucial to create a conducive learning climate for nurses. HRD practitioners in healthcare can usethe study findings to advise hospitals about implementing the right conditions to support CPD fornurses.Originality/value – A qualitative study using the Delphi method to discover factors influencingCPD in nursing had not been conducted before. Unlike many studies looking essentially at formaleducation, the present paper takes into account workplace learning among nurses as well.Keywords Continuing professional development, Delphi study, Nurses, The NetherlandsPaper type Research paperIn nursing literature the terms continuing professional development (CPD) andcontinuing professional education (CPE) are often used interchangeably (Perry, 1995).While CPE is more focused on didactic principles and formal educational contexts,CPD is more focused on self-directed learning, in which the nurse is the director of
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