Effective responses might share personal experience, ask for clarification, or add additional information, so feel free to analyze, interpret, critique, and suggest.
1-
I agree with the scientific management theory which relays that people are motivated by money. This is also reflected in my hospital with our yearly evaluations. Staff performance evaluations are done, and employees are given three percent max of their yearly salary as an reward. We also have a yearly bonus that is given to all staff members, which includes all full time, part-time and perdiiem’s. This monetary factor does motivate all staff with performance and hospital improvements. Our moral is great at the end of every year! I also concur that it is perceived that night shift is the less busy shift, therefore requires less staffing. That seems to be a ongoing belief in nursing. Your trauma orthopedic unit sounds like a PCA is greatly needed to care for the patients. Staffing remains to be an ongoing problems with nursing.
2-
The Scientific Management Theory was created by Fredrick Taylor. He studied how work was performed, and then looked at how this affected worker productivity. Taylor’s philosophy focused on the belief that making people work as hard as they could was not as efficient as optimizing the way the work was done.
Taylor’s four principles are explained as:

Replace working by “rule of thumb,” or simple habit and common sense, and instead use the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way to perform specific tasks.
Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency.
Monitor worker performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they’re using the most efficient ways of working.
Allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently.

 
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