Part A: Connections
Tasks for Sections I and II:
All Sections require description and explanation of sequential connections between specific ocean processes or characteristics (Sections I & II: 8 points each; Section III: 4 points). Each requires answers to one of two options, elucidating the connections between the four terms noted in bold italics.
Section I: Answer either Question I.1 or I.2
I.1. Coriolis force and Atmospheric circulation and Ocean currents and Tides
i.2. Prevailing winds and Wave directions and Longshore drift and Coastal evolution.
Section II: Answer either Question II.3 or II.4
II.3. Climate & precipitation and Land run-off and Nutrients and Coastal productivity
II.4. Plate tectonics and Ocean basins and Currents and Tides & waves.
Section III: Answer either Question III.5 or III.6
III.5. Climate change and Sea ice & glaciers and Sea level and Coastal erosion
III.6. Climate change and Ocean temperatures and Hurricanes and Coastal erosion
There is also an optional bonus Task (3 points), which is to complete the second question (III.5 or III.6).
Guidelines
For parts (a) to (c) of each question explain in ~30-50 words the relationship between the two terms noting how the former controls, governs, or drives the latter, suggesting illustrative examples of these linkages. For part (d) the significance of the overall series of connected processes should be evaluated, with an emphasis on using examples to explain and illustrate the overall series of relationships.
Strong answers will elucidate the explicit connection between the individual terms in paired sequences, explaining the succession of relationships between them by describing how the former term controls or governs the latter, as required by the specific format of the questions, and concluding with an evaluation and discussion of the significance of overall connection pathways.
Example:
An analogous example would be the connections between ocean temperatures and ocean/atmosphere circulation and El Niño events and ocean productivity could comprise an expanded discussion of the following sequence of illustrative points: (a) how ocean temperatures control precipitation patterns and both ocean and atmospheric circulation in the Pacific and, (b) how a build-up of warm water in the western tropical Pacific can trigger a changes in these circulation patterns described as El Niño events, and (c) how during an El Niño event warm water tracks eastward across the equatorial Pacific increasing ocean temperatures offshore Peru, which deepens the thermocline and restricts the upwelling of nutrient-rich cold water thereby limiting ocean productivity. The summary evaluation (d) would refer to the initiation of El Niño events, connecting individual processes via a series of connections to their subsequent outcomes, citing illustrative examples, and noting why such phenomena ultimately end, and can lead to the reverse effect known as La Niña.

Section I:
Answer all parts (a-d) of either Question I.1 or I.2.
I.1. Coriolis force and Atmospheric circulation and Ocean currents and Tides
a. Coriolis force and Atmospheric circulation (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
b. Coriolis force and Ocean currents (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
c. Coriolis force and Tides (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
d. Evaluation & Discussion of the significance of the connection among these four terms, including illustrative examples. (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
I.2. Prevailing winds and Wave directions and Longshore drift and Coastal evolution.
a. Prevailing winds and Wave directions (2 points)
Prevailing winds are strong winds that blow over a particular area of the earth’s surface at a high speed. Wave direction is decided by the wind that is making contact with the surface of the water. Therefore, the speed of the wind, which can be driven by prevailing winds, will have an effect on the direction of waves.
b. Wave directions and Longshore drift (2 points)
Longshore drift is the process of transportation of sediments from and along the coastline. The wind will cause the direction of the waves to move parallel to the shore, which contributes to the process of longshore drift. Waves come in from the sea at a perpendicular or slightly diagonal angle, but oblique winds at the shore will cause the parallel wave motion.
c. Longshore drift and Coastal evolution (2 points)
Longshore drift is literally the transportation of coastal sediment, this naturally contributes to the evolution of coastlines. As sediment is removed from one area and deposited to another, the shape of the coastline will change and adjust as well.
d. Evaluation & Discussion of the significance of the connection among these four terms, including illustrative examples. (2 points)
We can make a connection between longshore drift and prevailing winds in that the basis for longshore drift is the oblique wind motion at the shore. While this is not necessarily a “prevailing” wind, like the westerlies or easterlies, we can still see the significance of wind direction and how it affects the direction of water. Additionally, the direction of water has great effect on the movement and relocation of sediments from a shoreline, which causes entire coasts to change and evolve over time.
Section II:
Answer all parts (a-d) of either Question II.3 or II.4.
II.3. Climate & precipitation and Land run-off and Nutrients and Coastal productivity
a. Climate & Precipitation and Land run-off (2 points)
The Type of climate and amount of precipitation can influence the amount of land runoff. Increased precipitation and a very precipitous climate will increase the amount of Land run-off a coastal area will experience by rivers and groundwater.
b. Land run-off and Nutrient supply to the ocean (2 points)
Increased land runoff directly relates to an increase in the ocean nutrient supply. Land runoff through river and groundwater output brings nutrient rich water to the sea from the land allowing plants and creatures to use these nutrients allowing for prouctivity.
c. Nutrient supply to the ocean and Coastal productivity (2 points)
Nutrient rich water allows plants and creatures to feed and thrive. Primary producers use nutrients from land runoff to convert to energy and thus continue the food web. Coastal productivity is directly influenced by how nutrient rich the water is off the coast.
d. Evaluation & Discussion of the significance of the connection among these four terms, including illustrative examples. (2 points)
These terms all relate to each other in terms of influencing the coastal productivity of a region. Increased precipitation increases runoff, runoff increases the nutrient supply, and the nutrient supply influences coastal productivity. Primary producers use the nutrients from the increased land runoff to supply the food chain of the coastal region and thus increase coastal productivity. We can see the relation to make the bigger picture more obvious as to how these things influence one another.
II.4. Plate tectonics and Ocean basins and Currents and Tides & waves.
a. Plate tectonics and Ocean basins (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
b. Ocean basins and Currents (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
c. Ocean basins and Tides & waves (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
d. Evaluation & Discussion of the significance of the connection among these four terms, including illustrative examples. (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
Section III:
Answer both parts (a-d) of either Question III.5 or III.6.
III.5. Climate change and Sea ice & glaciers and Sea level and Coastal erosion
a. Climate change and Sea ice & glaciers and Sea level and Coastal erosion (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
b. Evaluation & discussion of the significance of the connection among these four terms, including illustrative examples. (2 points).
(Write your answer here)
III.6. Climate change and Ocean temperatures and Hurricanes and Coastal erosion
a. Climate change and Ocean temperatures and Hurricanes and Coastal erosion (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
b. Evaluation & discussion of the significance of the connection among these four terms, including illustrative examples. (2 points)
(Write your answer here)
Bonus Task:
Answer the question (either III.5 or III.6) that was not answered above, discussing and explaining the connections between the terms noted in bold italics. (3 bonus points)

(Cut and paste the appropriate template for III.5 or III.6 here and complete both of its parts)

 

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