Health and Physical Education Assessment 2: Health and physical education folio – part B
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Health and Physical EducationAssessment 2: Health and physical education folio – part B Word limit: 2000 (+/- 10%)Weighting: 30%Due date:9am AEST Monday 5 September 2016 (Week 8)PrintAssessment overview
The purpose of this folio assessment is to produce a collection of information, resources and reflections from Module B (weeks 5-7) which will help you develop your skills in teaching health and physical education. This assessment constitutes the second part of your portfolio, building on Assessment 1 (Part A) which covered Module A.
By gathering information into a folio, you are demonstrating an ability to identify, evaluate and transmit ideas about effective principles, policies and practices for developing health and physical education within a primary school setting. This assessment allows you to add a reflective dialogue and track your reasons for including specific evidence. Your folio should not just be a collection of resources. If academic underpinning is not evident, then you will not pass this assessment. Utilise the expertise of your eLA to question whether the evidence you have chosen to include meets the assessment criteria.
Your folio will contain three separate items which will relate to each of the topic areas within Module B (as specified in the table below). Each item should be clearly labelled for marking purposes with the name and description, and must include:
evidence of the resource, such as a photograph, document (e.g. MS Word) or URL (if from an external source)a descriptive rationale and reflection on the resource. This must include:a brief description of the resourcean explanation of how it would be used in health and physical education, providing evidence of knowledge and understanding of pedagogy, tools, methods and resources. Consider different teaching strategies you may use, any links to practice you have, and reflections from placement experiences or discussion board communications.an analysis of the benefits and limitations of the resource, linked to academic literature and curricula documentation (i.e. the Australian Curriculum), demonstrating evidence connecting academic literature to practice.Item no. Theme Item1 Active play and games An outline for a game that would be suitable for early primary students. This game must incorporate ability and inclusion concerns.2 Challenge and adventure activities An outline of a physical activity for middle primary students which requires cooperation and problem solving skills.3 Group games and sports An outline for a lesson for upper primary students based on an organised sport. This lesson must incorporate both ICT and ability and inclusion concerns.Note that these outlines only need to be broad overviews of the lesson or activity. They do not need to be detailed lesson plans.
Each of your folio items must be fully referenced in APA style. Note that references are not included within the word limit.
Your folio should be submitted as a Word document. Within this document:
each item must be clearly labelled with the name and descriptioninclude all relevant information within the item, e.g. links to online resources, embedded images.Note that for this assessment, you will be developing the resources yourself, rather than finding material on the internet (or elsewhere). The word limit of 2000 (+/-10%) applies to both the resources you produce and also the descriptive rationale and analysis of these resources. While this will allow some level of flexibility in terms of how much you write for each individual item, you are strongly advised to split the word count as evenly as possible between all three items.
This assessment will be submitted via Turnitin. See the Assessment 2 section of Blackboard for more detailed information.
Knowledge and understanding of subject.Quality of resources, including analysis.Evidence of personal and professional reflection and evaluation.Evidence of connecting academic literature to practice.Presentation: structure and format.Your work will be assessed using the following marking guide:
Grade DescriptorPass [P 50-59%]All aspects of the task have been completed (three items of evidence included in the folio), and the requirements of all criteria have been met at a satisfactory level.Your folio shows a satisfactory understanding of health and physical education through the items you have selected to include and the brief description of what the items are.Each item of evidence has a descriptive rationale which discusses how each resource can be related to health and physical education.The rationale indicates some understanding of health and physical education.Attempts have been made to reflect, however the rationale is over-reliant upon personal opinion and anecdote.You have adhered to relevant conventions of English and have maintained an appropriate degree of structure and formality. Your folio is proofread so that most typographical and spelling errors are eliminated, and any errors that are present do not detract substantially from the communication of ideas.While there are some errors in your APA referencing, you do provide evidence to support your ideas, although this evidence may be drawn from a limited range of sources.Credit [C 60-69%]To be awarded a Credit, you must fulfil all of the requirements of the P level, but with more sophistication.Your folio shows a comprehensive understanding of health and physical education through the items you have selected to include and the succinct description of what the items are.Each item of evidence has a descriptive and comprehensive rationale which discusses how each resource can be related to health and physical education.The rationale indicates consistent understanding of health and physical education.The reflection and evaluation has a clear balance between anecdote and meaningful reflection.Your writing is concise, and word choice is deliberate. You communicate meaning effectively and efficiently, without superfluous words, phrases and sentences.Apart from minor issues in text and/or in the reference list, you adhere to APA referencing conventions and use evidence from an appropriate range of sources.Distinction [D 70-79%]To be awarded a Distinction; you must fulfil all of the requirements of the C level, but with a higher degree of insight into the topic, and competence in written communication.Your folio demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of health and physical education through the items you have selected to include and the focused description of what the items are.Each item of evidence has a synthesised and carefully integrated (quotes/paraphrasing/supporting evidence) rationale which discusses how each resource can be related to health and physical education.The rationale indicates consistent and comprehensive understanding of health and physical education, with clear links to theory and contemporary perspectives.The reflection and evaluation identifies meaningful points and offers implications for personal and professional practice.You draw on evidence for a wide range of appropriate sources, and all statements are supported as required. APA conventions are accurate and successfully integrated.Effective language use is a feature of the folio. Errors in spelling, punctuation and grammatical construction have been addressed through careful proofreading. You write with sensitivity for your audience and consider the impact of your choices in terms of language and tone.High Distinction [HD 80-100%]To be awarded a HD; you must fulfil all of the requirements of the D level, and show higher levels of sophistication and insight.Your folio demonstrates a detailed and insightful understanding of health and physical education through the items you have selected to include and the clear and comprehensive description of what the items are.Each item of evidence has a synthesised and carefully integrated (quotes/paraphrasing/supporting evidence) rationale which discusses how each resource can be related to health and physical education.The rationale indicates fluent understanding of health and physical education with sophisticated links to theory, contemporary perspectives and curricula documentation.Evidence of sophisticated reflection on personal and professional practice.Across all sections, your writing is concise and logical, with richly integrated ideas that convey meaning and purpose.Your use of literature across all sections of the folio demonstrates familiarity with the current field of research and your statements are consistently supported with relevant and recent references. Flawless use of APA referencing style is evident and there are no errors in spelling, grammar or punctuation.If this assignment fails to reach a Pass [P] standard, then it must be awarded a Fail [N].
EXTRA INFORMATION THE PORT FOLIO
Concepts and ReadingsActive play and games
We begin our module on the importance of play and games with a focus on the early primary years.
Cartoon of children playing in a field.Active play and games (2014), created by Swinburne OnlineDuring this topic, we define active play and games and justify why imaginative play has a place within the primary learning environment. We also consider how children can provide support for skill development without competition.
Click on this link to learn more about Active play and games in the Australian Curriculum.
The value of play and games
Play is a natural pattern of learning for children. Within Health and PE, play and games allow children to explore collaboration, team work and individual challenges through fun and healthy activities and experiences. Play and games in the lower primary school can include imaginative playground games, role-play chase games, playing with props or even playing board games as a leisure activity. Play allows children to explore who they are and how they fit in, so play and games are an overlap between physical health and mental health and well-being.
As a teacher you may feel that Health and PE means that children must raise their heart rate and demonstrate movement and you must always be in control but Health and PE can be about children exploring and creating their own games which are more about leisure than fitness.
Briggs & Hansen (2012), Chapter 3 Types of play for primary school children (pp. 30-46) gives a very clear overview of the difference between play and leisure time in the primary school context. The explanations about what play is and can be with primary-aged children is really useful for future planning.
Teaching active play and games
The readings provided on the Module B Introduction page outline the processes for planning, delivering and assessing a PE lesson.
At the early primary level, social and cognitive skills are less well developed, so students require more guidance and supervision from teachers. When considering the planning of lessons at the lower primary level, emphasis should be placed on the teaching style of guided discovery which emphasises the role of the teacher in leading learners to discover pre-determined information not previously known (refer to the information on this teaching style in the table A description of the spectrum of teaching styles [Meldrum & Peters, 2014, p. 296] in your eText for more information).
The following are examples of exercises in your Workbook that support active play and games:
Escape 1 – Patches O’Houlihan dodge ball (Warren, 2012, pp. 24-25) is a fun version of the classic game dodge ball.Tag games 1 – Ice age & break free (Warren, 2012, pp. 30-32) provides a couple of different types of tag games.Take some time to look through the Workbook for other examples of active play and games.
Move it mob style: class activities (2014) – this section of the ‘Move it Mob style’ website contains videos and worksheets relating to different types of physical activity – from golf to gardening. They offer useful ideas for in class activities related to active play and games.PE: Let’s get physical (Twells, 2008) – this brief article shares ideas about how physical activity doesn’t just mean a PE lesson and offers suggestions for being active in maths lessons and across the school day.Engagement at Key Stage 1 (Pro Teachers Video, 2007) – video which looks at different issues related to engaging girls and boys PE at early primary level.Firm Foundations (Pro Teachers Video, 2007) – video which looks at strategies used by a school in the UK to establish PE in early primary years.Participating in sport – games and activities – you can find a selection of Indigenous games on the Australian Sports Commission (n.d.) website. Some are appropriate across the primary age phase and can be adapted to form the stem for different games.Indoor active play ideas – The Department of Health and Aging, ACT (n.d.) have collated a breakdown of indoor active play ideas for young children. Although the website caters for babies through to five years olds some nice ideas can be adapted and enhanced for Foundation and Lower Primary aged children.Group games for school age kids (Kids Health, n.d.) – this fun website has a whole selection of different games you can play with primary aged children. They could even be games introduced during breaks and lunchtime.Supplement your reading and watching with some more practical activity. Invite a group of friends to participate in these activities. Think about how you feel while you’re playing. What factors do you find that make a successful, engaging and enjoyable game?
Ability and inclusion
No child likes to be left out at any age, or embarrassed in front of their class. In the early childhood setting, it is especially important that games enable participation by all class members, but that no child is forced to participate beyond their level of skill.
The safety of children is a key priority when planning active play and games. Important aspects that must be taken into account include:
creating high-quality environmentssafety managementliabilityindoor safetyoutdoor safetyinjury preventionfirst aid.
Remember, PE is also about cognition. Children need to understand what the rules are, how skills build and why they are doing things – so your key skills are to explain and guide.Active play and games allow for imaginative play so you can give children an object or a starting point and ask them to work in small groups to extend their play. After a set time you could then ask each group to demonstrate or share and reflect upon their game or play to discuss how it developed.For active play and games you do not just have to stay on school grounds. You could go and explore natural and built environments in the community as a good lead into ‘Challenge and Adventure Activities’ – just remember your risk assessment and to comply with OHS.
Health and Physical EducationModule B: Topic 2: Challenge and adventure activitiesConcepts and ReadingsActivities & AssessmentConcepts and ReadingsChallenge and adventure activities
In Topic 1, we looked at the role of free-form play and games in the early years of primary education. In this second topic, we move on to the middle years and look at how more challenging activities can be provided for growing children.
Cartoon of children doing adventure activities. Surfing, canoeing, bike riding.Challenge and adventure activities (2014) created by Swinburne OnlineChallenge and adventure activities are essential as they allow children to problem-solve and experience diverse environments which may challenge them physically and psychologically. i.e. some metropolitan children may not have been bushwalking so we consider the value in orienteering within the primary curriculum.
Click on this link to learn more about Challenge and adventure activities in the Australian Curriculum.
Defining challenges and adventure activities
As children grow and move into the middle primary level, they develop capacity to participate in more challenging activities. Such activities may provide a greater challenge at the physical level, e.g. bushwalking or surfing. Or they may provide challenges in other areas, such as working in teams or problem solving, e.g. orienteering, which take advantage of developing social and cognitive skills.
When planning such activities, you should continue to refer to the readings on planning, teaching and assessing physical education provided on the Module B Introduction page. The teaching style of convergent discovery, which encourages more independent problem solving, becomes especially useful for these types of activities (refer to the information on this teaching style in the table A description of the spectrum of teaching styles in your eText, (Meldrum & Peters, 2014, p. 296) for more information).
A lot of the activities described in this topic will most likely be conducted outside formal school. However, within the Workbook you will find examples of exercises that will support the development of the skills required, particularly around teamwork and problem solving, e.g.:
Locomotion 2 – Watch for obstacles, (Warren, 2012, pp. 50-51) provides a more challenging obstacle course for students to negotiate.Elude 2 – Set free, (Warren, 2012, pp. 66-67) is a game that requires high levels of teamwork.Take some time to look through the Workbook for other examples of activities that support the development of the skills required for challenge and adventure activities.
Primary school camps (The Outdoor Adventure Company, n.d.) – many primary schools will elect to combine several adventure and outdoor activities into either a camp or an excursion. The outdoor adventure company is a private company which offers this service and it is useful understanding what provision is out there before designing your own trip.Sites to see – surf safety (NSW Education and Training, 2011) – provides guidance on surf safety for children. It also explores the science of waves and history of surfing.Beach safety: video campaign assessment (Education Services Australia Ltd, 2013) – this resource from Scootle assesses public awareness and safety when on the beach. It is useful to do or adapt prior to going on a beach excursion.Tri knights! Children’s triathlon – this set of children’s triathlon plans can be adapted from the UK TES website (2014) to match Australian Curriculum content. Doing a triathlon style challenge activity with primary aged children is great fun.Schools policy and advisory guide: adventure activities (DEECD, VIC, 2013) – challenge and adventure activities may carry a risk to primary aged students and this is something you need to be aware of as you plan diverse but exciting activities. Each state should have guidance information with regard to risk assessments, parental consent, regulations etc. and this website is the advisory section from Victoria.If you get the chance, see if you can actively participate in some of these activities yourself. Go for a bushwalk. Bring some friends together to participate in a cooperative group activity. What works? What doesn’t? What can you learn that could be applied to the school setting?
Ability and inclusion
Increasing levels of physical challenge can also lead to further issues of ability and inclusion. As children develop at different rates in different ways (physically, socially, and cognitively) different types of activities are likely to pose different types of difficulties for students.
Cultural sensitivities can also be raised in different ways, for example in activities which require some types of physical contact or particular dress requirements (e.g. water-based activities). Indigenous sensitivities also need to be considered, particularly if activities are conducted within bushland.
As the level of physical challenge increases, so does the risk of potential injury. Careful planning becomes more important to ensure children are not placed at risk.
Remember to do a head count.Be aware of potential hazards.Make sound sensible judgments about what constitutes a dangerous situation.Remember to keep children in your line of sight and have your behaviour strategy already worked out; because you cannot turn your back to deal with an issue you need to supervise constantly.Challenge and adventure activities overlap with wellbeing and mental health as children may require stamina and endurance to complete an activity. For example if you are going bushwalking or orienteering this may take children away from their comfortable environment. It is useful therefore to pair children up so peers can encourage and support each other and also remember to plan rest and re-hydration stops.Remember children need appropriate physical challenges; consider their age and development when planning and designing activities.These types of activities allow for leadership skills to develop and also actively encourage group problem-solving.As you will be in outdoor natural environments it is paramount that you discuss sustainability and environmental awareness with the children. Stay together as a group at the pace of the slowest group member.
EDU30014: Health and Physical EducationModule B: Topic 3: Group games and sportsConcepts and ReadingsActivities & AssessmentConcepts and ReadingsGroup games and sports
As we have worked through this module, we have covered the development of active skills from the early to the middle years of primary school. In this final topic, we look at the upper primary years, and the roles of group games and organised sports.
Cartoon of children playing group games and sportGroup games and sport (2014) created by Swinburne OnlineGroup games and sports within the primary environment generally refer to upper primary year levels. Within this week, we look at competition, coaching, assessing. We also look at how to integrate ICT within health and PE lessons.
Click on this link to learn more about Group games and sports in the Australian Curriculum.
Sports at school
Conducting organised sports within schools can pose something of a challenge. Given the divergent interests and skill levels that will have developed by upper primary, what is the role of organised sport at school.
Generally speaking, organised school sports should focus less on the competitive aspects and more on fitness and health. It provides opportunities for both introducing and extending skills. However, a school teacher is not expected to be a sporting coach, nor to have a win at all costs mentality.
As with the previous topics in this module, the readings on planning, teaching and assessing physical education provided on the Module B Introduction page still hold true. Organised sport at the higher levels provides opportunities for greater involvement by students in lesson delivery, and a broad range of teaching styles including command, practice, learner-initiated and self-teaching (refer to the information on these teaching styles in the table A description of the spectrum of teaching styles [Meldrum & Peters, 2014, pp. 296-298] in your eText, for more information).
The following are examples of exercises in your Workbook that support group games and sports:
Escape 2 – Snipers and guards (Warren, 2012, pp. 56-57) supports the skills required for basketball and netball.Smash 2 – 4 way diamond cricket (Warren, 2012, pp. 64-65) supports the development of cricket skills.Take some time to look through the Workbook for other examples of activities that support the development of the skills required for group games and sports.
An activities resource for classroom teachers – an updated version of the resource from the Victorian Department of Education (2011) shared in the introductory week. Useful ideas for developing key skills such as leaping, throwing, catching etc.Games and sports (NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011) – this resource site offers very useful information for the teaching of games and sports. Students should remember that some of the information may not be current as the Australian Curriculum supersedes the NSW syllabus.PE: junior entrepreneurs (Hutt, n.d.) – this UK resource guides teachers into enabling primary aged children to plan their own sports to promote life skills. These useful ideas can be adapted for an Australian context.Physical education resources for teachers (TeacherVision, 2013) – this website of resources from the USA offers some nice adaptable ideas, lesson plans and resources which can be used in an Australian learning environment.Sports rules for primary teachers (Healthy Kids NSW, 2014) – this resource will help the generalist primary school teacher understand the rules for a range of sports; e.g. hockey, football etc.Basketball clinic (Education Services Australia Ltd, 2013) – an animated game to help a team improve their basketball skills by dribbling, shooting etc.AusKick (2013) – provides opportunities for children to work together to learn about football. The website contains detailed lesson plans for teachers, a parents’ section and a kids’ section.Learning doesn’t end with these resources. Do you participate in organised sport? If so, think about what are some of the key elements that support successful participation. If not, try to organise a game with some friends. How can you get people involved, especially when they’re not comfortable with their skills?
Integrating ICT into PE
As we conclude this module, we introduce the element of information and communication technology (ICT) in physical education. Within the Australian Curriculum, ICT is a general capability which must be engaged with across all disciplines.
There are many different ways that ICT can be employed within PE. It can be used as a support within lessons (e.g. a mobile phone used as a timer) or as a tool for coaching (e.g. using video to record students practicing a skill). It can also play a role in planning lessons and activities.
Chapter 8 The use and abuse of ICT to enhance learning in physical education (Williams, 2011, pp. 100-112) explores how ICT can be used within PE. This chapter documents examples of using ICT in a positive manner to enhance learning. It also considers the implications for practice and the reflections are important for the developing teacher as the scenarios described could happen to them.
Chapter 7 ICT and general capabilities in the Australian Curriculum (Callcott, et al., 2012, pp. 121-136) describes the general capabilities and how they apply to health and PE. It offers examples of how ICT can be effectively integrated in health and PE.
Ability and inclusion
When planning organised sporting activities, ability and inclusion can present significant challenges. By upper primary level, skill levels can vary significantly. Many children will be playing organised sports outside school and will be highly skilled and competitive. Teachers will need to ensure that all students are able to be involved and not feel exposed or humiliated by a lack of skill. The primary focus of these activities are enjoyment and participation.
Take some time to refer back to the readings above on ICT to consider how it may be able to play a role in supporting inclusion.
Children do a lot of learning from TV when it comes to some group games so be prepared for them to get in role and maybe even act out a controversial issue from a game. You must therefore clearly discuss roles and also share appropriate role-models for behaviour and fair play.There is a current drive to remove competitive games from primary health and PE; you will have your own specific views on this. Remember the overlap again with wellbeing and mental health. Establish good sporting behaviour for ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ and supportive teaching strategies for encouraging ‘trying your best’.Skill development and cognition are key for developing group games and sports so do not rush to play a full game too early. An example could be that children cannot grasp all of the skills to play volleyball such as a dig or spike so why not adapt the rules and allow players to catch the ball instead. Although this may seem basic, at least players will get some enjoyment from the game and ‘have a go’ so you create a supportive team ethos.Avoid too many teaching points at once and give children clear guidance.Remember to involve all pupils and make sure teams are well matched.Involve children in regulating and officiating their own group game or sport.For athletics you need to also encourage individual effort and performance. This helps children develop a sense of self-worth, responsibility and being trusted. Remember there are several types of games such as invasion games, striking or fielding games and over the net games so lots of different skills are needed to play these games to the levels children see sports people do on TV.
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