HSCI 450: Content Review and Extra Credit (optional)
Below are some highlights from the textbook this semester. Most of this information will be new to those of you who did not read the full chapters. This content is considered important, and a few questions may be extracted to be included on your final exam.
1. Trends and issues relating to practitioners and caregivers cluster around continuing expansion of scope of practice, with related increase in education and credentialing. The scope of practice is limited to that which the law allows for specific education and experience, and specific demonstrated competency. In healthcare, it is critically important for practitioners to operate within their scope of practice. For example, the role of a psychiatrist and psychologist is often conflated; however, psychiatrists are medical doctors while psychologists are not. Inasmuch, psychiatrists often treat patients with a mental health condition that require medication (e.g. antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, etc). Both psychiatrists and psychologists are trained to diagnose and treat mental health conditions. Psychologists, however, tend to focus on psychological testing and talk therapy though in five states (Idaho, Iowa, Illinois, Louisiana, New Mexico). Psychologists with additional training can prescribe medicine. Another example of operating beyond scope of practice involves chiropractors and physical therapists. Chiropractors often perform physical therapy, but this is a prohibited practice in most states. Only licensed PT’s are authorized to perform PT in most of the continental U.S. Healthcare administrators are responsible for ensuring workers are operating within their scope of practice. 
2. High level managers or chief executive officers generally have the responsibility of assessing compliance with current requirements, monitoring proposed changes, and helping departments and services prepare for upcoming changes. This is critically important since being out of compliance with local, state, or federal regulations could lead to fines, lawsuits, and loss of licensure (professional and/or operational). 
3. Department managers should know the differences between what can be controlled and what cannot be controlled. This simple rule could reduce some level of stress in managers or administrators. There is no point in wasting energy on things (e.g. changes in upper level management) that are beyond your control. 
4.  The manager’s environment is the formal organization. The effective manager knows the internal and external dynamics of the organization including strengths and vulnerabilities. Formal organizations are characterized by the following features:
a. A common goal, an accepted pattern of purpose
b. A set of shared values or common beliefs that give individuals a sense of identification and belonging
c. Continuity of goal-oriented interaction
d. A division of labor deliberately planned to achieve the goal
e. A system of authority or a chain of command to achieve conscious integration of the group and conscious coordination of efforts to reach the goal
5. Managers can address change with employees in three ways: tell them what to do, convince them of what must be done, or involve them in determining what must be done.
6. “Dos” and “Don’ts” of Delegation:
a. Know when to delegate
i. Highly specialized tasks (e.g. technology)
ii. Work unit tasks could be delegated to an assistant manager or director of a particular unit (e.g. shipping and receiving) 
b. Know when not to delegate
i. Certain activities are the primary responsibility of the manager and normally are not delegated, such as hiring, disciplinary action, and termination
c. Avoid common pitfalls associated with delegation
i. A manager might undermine a unit supervisor by countermanding, even informally, a decision made by the first-line supervisor
ii. A manager may endeavor to fix or resolve a problem within a unit without involving the coordinator or supervisor of that unit
7. Planning is the process of deciding in the present what to do to bring about a desired outcome in the future. Planning involves determining appropriate goals and deciding on the means to achieve them, making assumptions, developing premises, and reviewing alternative courses of action. In planning, the manager contemplates the situation desired for the future considering what is known or can be inferred about the future. Department heads are normally responsible for the planning process in their areas of jurisdiction. The effective manager monitors the planning process as an ongoing activity so that existing plans may be modified, and new plans developed to meet changes in one or several planning constraints.
8. The statement of core values, philosophy, or mission provides an overall frame of reference for organizational practice: it is the basis of the overall goals, objectives, policies, and derived plans. 
9. Objectives are relatively tangible, concrete plans and are usually stated in terms of results to be achieved. An overall goal such as “to promote the health and well-being of the community” can be accomplished only through a series of specific objectives that are met on a continuing basis. Health care managers or administrators should always be in the frame of mind to set goals and objectives. Otherwise, a unit or organization will have no set standards by which to improve. Objectives may be stated in a variety of ways and different levels of detail may be used. Here are a couple of examples:
a. Services: provide comprehensive personal patient care services with full consideration for the elements of good medical care (e.g. accessibility, quality, continuity, efficiency)
b. Values: ensure privacy and confidentiality in all phases of patient care interaction and documentation
10. Policies are the guides to thought and action by which managers seek to delineate the areas within which decisions will be made and subsequent actions taken. Policies spell out the required, prohibited, or suggested courses of action. Department or unit managers develop the policies specific to their assigned areas, but these policies must be consistent with those originated by top management. Inasmuch, external policies such as federal policies supersede all policies including local and state policies.
11. The terms line and staff are key words in any discussion of organizing. Line refers to those workers who have direct responsibility for accomplishing the objectives of the organization, and staff refers to those employees who help the line units achieve the objectives. Inasmuch, staff refers to the groups of employees who perform the work of a given department or unit. 
12. A committee may be defined as a group of persons in an organization who function collectively on an organized basis to perform some administrative activity. Minutes serve as the permanent factual record of committee proceedings. An explicit statement in bylaws or policies may state that the minutes shall be maintained, including a record of attendance; that they shall reflect the transactions, conclusions, and recommendations of each meeting adequately; and that they shall be kept in a permanent file. In legal proceedings, the admissibility of committee minutes and proceedings as evidence rests on the premise that these records were made in the normal course of business at the time of the actions or events, or within a reasonable time thereafter. Committee minutes should be reviewed by all committee members prior to each committee meeting to ensure the minutes accurately reflect action steps and topic of discussion in the previous meeting.
EXTRA CREDIT:
1. Select two items from above (1 through 12) to discuss in detail. For example, how might the information help to prepare someone for a healthcare leadership role? Why is the information important for healthcare leaders? 
a. Number each response
b. Responses should be no fewer than 200 words
c. Two responses must be completed to earn credit: up to 7 points (3.5 points per response)
d. Upload your assignment to the Dropbox by 11:59 pm, 11/29/20
 
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