toxicology 4 short answers unit 1 assessment

Four short questions for BOS 4201 Toxicology. Please see attached for questions
unit 1 lessosn:Toxicology and Its Roots as a Science This unit introduces the dose-response relationship and a history of toxicology, including early contributors. In addition, it explains the common terms used in toxicology and identifies the types of epidemiological studies used to determine if a given chemical has the potential for changes in human health. Toxicology is considered as a borrowed science and is defined as the study of the adverse effects of chemicals in biological systems. Some common terms used in toxicology include toxic chemical, toxic substance, toxicant, toxin, poison, toxic agent, and xenobiotic. You need to understand these terms to grasp the concepts in this course. A toxin is a chemical produced by a living organism. A toxicant is a chemical that can cause harm. An example of a toxin produced by the puffer fish is tetrodotoxin. A xenobiotic is a substance that is not normally found in or produced by the body. Examples of xenobiotics include n-hexane (a solvent that affects the nervous system) and paraquat (a herbicide that affects the lungs). A poison is a more general term used to describe a substance, and when it is ingested or absorbed in small amounts, it may cause injury or death (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014). The origins of toxicology go back to 1500 BC with the use of heavy metals. One of the first physicians to apply principles of toxicology was Hippocrates. Additionally, Paracelsus is known as the father of toxicology and recognized for the concept that “the dose makes the poison” (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014, p. 10). Dr. Bernardino Ramazzini wrote the first comprehensive work on occupational medicine (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014). He was followed by Dr. Alice Hamilton, the founder of American occupational toxicology, who wrote the book Exploring the Dangerous Trades. Another physician, Dr. Percival Pott, made a link between chimney sweeps and scrotal cancer. Intentional poisonings also played a role in the history of toxicology. In the 17th century, Madame Giulia Toffana developed a poisonous mixture containing arsenic that she sold with instructions for its use (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014).

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